Increasing need for energy and water resources in the world and increased uncertainty about the future of these resources require international cooperation at regional and global level. Especially in the most of the developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America problems such as need for energy and water resources, food security, health, climate changes, drought, global warming, environmental pollution are not those that could be solved just by themselves anymore. Solution of these problems requires long-term cooperation at the regional, continental and even on global levels.
There exists a close relationship between modernization and development of energy, water and food, and economic growth. In the 21th century increasing effect of these problems on individuals, communities and states caused the emergence of new concepts. For instance, the concepts of “agricultural diplomacy”, “water diplomacy”, “energy diplomacy”, “resource nationalism” have developed and gained importance. The race for the scarce resources and tensions over resources have been the main reasons of wars of modern history.
In today’s world when energy requirements are increasing very rapidly and comprehensive security networks are not created it does not seem possible to ensure international security and stability. To keep on agenda the options as solar energy, biofuel along with traditional energy resources that will not create ecological imbalance is possible only through international coordination and cooperation. Improvement of transportation sector that is based on energy which is the base for economic interaction also requires efforts in coordination and cooperation.
Energy security is not only an issue related to the energy policy or production policy of one country. Country or countries that control energy resources are also managing international relations over the world. It can be said that control of energy resources on the global level is the basic element and condition of political and economic hegemony. Due to this reason, studies regarding energy security are of vital importance not just for securing production conditions which means ensuring water and food security on the national level but also for construction of independent or autonomous areas of activity in the international arena and for its maintenance.
New developments in the energy sector, new technologies in the extraction of shale gas and petroleum are at such level that may affect the future of global geopolitics. All these developments have recently made the US net energy exporter. Implementation of these technologies in China may change the course of geopolitics of world energy and now centrally located countries may be exposed to lose relative importance. Loss of relative importance in the case of “Energy” as the main means of global hegemony will become the reason of consumption of such means as water and food security.
Ineffective management of water resources seems to become the reason of serious international issues. Even the experts claim that in the case that serious measures are not taken, water scarcity issues would gain more importance than energy problems, and eruption of “Water Wars” in the future would destroy international order and stability. Impact of water accessibility on development and growth has become more significant rather than impact of energy in this field.
The rapid increase of world population has been raising the question of food security. The growth in food demand has been increasing energy and water demands too. Climate changes based on global warming trigger drought in some countries and floods in others and both of them are becoming the reason of serious decline in food production.
In order to support coordination and cooperation at national level, state authorities need to take the necessary measures and precautions for solution of energy, water and food issues. With the awareness of interdependence strategic approaches have to be developed and goals should be set. However in solution of water, energy and food issues not only states but also non-state actors such as national and international non-governmental organizations and think tanks play an important role. Contemporary approaches to institutionalization of governance, differences of identity and concerns, determination of values, adoption, teaching and ensuring peace have gained importance. In this way, national interest would be secured, interests of countries put in accordance, measures necessary in the face of technological development taken, international conflicts resolved and sufficient economic growth achieved.
Hunger and malnutrition are the two most important reasons hindering human development. These two dangers are threatening the right to life, opportunities for human development, in other words it is preventing important human functions from performing.
Food security can be mentioned in cases of realization of conditions for permanent access high quality food in sufficient amount, having food purchase power, proper food storage, also possibility for individuals to access any information on health and sanitation services, nutrition and child care. According to 2012 statistics with 240 million only in sub-Saharan Africa more than one billion people around the world are below the hunger threshold.
The main measure for ensuring food security is the increase of agricultural productivity. Particularly in some countries due to expensive prices of fertilizer and improved seeds to be used and low education level require investing in fertilizer industry and seed breeding, and intensification of agricultural education. The important point here is to plan modern agricultural practices while increasing production without harming environment and health.
Now, it is impossible to come across a country, development and growth of which is based just on agriculture and livestock. On the other hand, when we observe countries that support agriculture and livestock most we see developed countries such as the U.S and France. Based on this, it can be said that if countries like Turkey do not take necessary measures in agriculture and livestock, they will definitely become food-dependant countries. It means that in case of any crisis powerful countries will take control over foreign policy in the field of food.
Such issues as family planning and education of girls are of great importance in terms of food security. In some countries rapid population growth is increasing the need for food. As a result of gender discrimination, absence of education for girls reduces efficiency and threatens food security. Rise of women’s status will contribute to the development of agricultural production, improvement of food security and poverty reduction. Therefore, within the aid and investment policies for some underdeveloped and developing countries it is necessary to take into consideration women health and their participation in production.
Actors-donors and development agencies in underdeveloped countries accent on the need of integration between agriculture, food and water security and community development projects. That is why food security depends not only on increase of production but also on determination of market potentials, improvement of drinking and irrigation water supply, improvement of educational opportunities, strengthening of local authorities in frame of good governance, support of producers, engagement of civil societies in food security, development of social justice and accountability, improvement of infrastructures, investigation of regional integration possibilities, benefitting from information and communication technologies, improvement of gender policy, development of human resources management and others.
Economic activities regarding production of food, feed, energy, chemicals and industrial goods derived from biological resources in the sustainable way are called “bio-economy”. The main purpose of bio-economy is to guarantee development in health care, increase of productivity and quality in agriculture and forestry, sustainable development in environmental problems also to build values and contribute to the economy by using biotechnologies. To sustain growth and development speed that we could achieve in the agricultural sector for the last years as a country and increase competitiveness in the international arena, it is already necessary to create national strategy in bio-economics.
When it comes to evaluate the issues in the context of relationship between energy, water and food security and civilization, we see that in the modern times when people stop caring about the future, in the other words, when space and time relationship became problematic case, resources are rapidly being depleted in the consumption era. In the case consumption frenzy does not come to an end, opinions claiming that fossil fuels that have been synthesized and stored for the millions maybe even for billions of years, would be exhausted in a few decades, will be the obvious evidence of it.
During environmental crises along with the modernity, the proposition of man’s dominion over nature has turned into contradiction between willing to achieve freedom and destruction of existential security. This approach presented as one of the main criteria of being modern sees the nature as an inexhaustible source that might be dominated irresponsibly hereby paving way for environmental disasters that threaten universal existence.
Parameters of inter-personal competition depend on who will prevail over which nature elements. Similarly, in today’s world where genetics have developed and cloning activities increased, use of chemical and radioactive materials spread, environmental problems became complex, the definition of “human” has gained new dimensions in terms of existence, security and freedom.
On the other hand, compensation for uncontrolled use of modern technologies has caused environmental and food security related issues. In case serious measures are not taken for consumption patterns, it seems that we will not leave habitable world and resources for the future generations.
Moreover, the current consumption patterns become the reason of determination of social status through power consumption and as a result, fundamental civilization values lose their meaning and society is disintegrating. The solution of problems like this will be possible only by transferring of deep and sufficient understanding of notion of civilization to the future generations. The core of such understanding exists in the accumulation of Anatolian Civilizations.
For keeping civilizations alive and preservation of values problems arising from technological development, problems of industrialization and urbanization, energy, water and food problems have to be seriously discussed, re-evaluated and appropriate policies have to be developed. Approaches related to energy, water and food security have to be revaluated from this point of view either.
All these problems that were tried to be discussed are both the reasons and results of pursuit of capital economic growth. So if the necessary measures are not taken seriously existing problems will grow and in a short time will become more inextricable. With each passing day unbalanced population growth, health and climate issues are gaining worrisome dimensions. The resolution of all those problems requires search for solutions based on civilization roots.
As a result of intense interaction between technological development and modern consumption culture people’s feeling of dissatisfaction is strengthening, individuals with uninhibited ambitions with more consumer desires willing to get rich in easy ways are raising the risks of food security accelerating production-consumption imbalance.
It is impossible to solve problems fundamentally by taking internal, external or international measures that are just technical; implementation of long-term civilization projects is inevitable necessity. Today, led by China, development of Asian countries based on such factors as state capitalism and cheap labor has undermined the competitiveness of Western countries and made energy, water and food security policies of those countries to be revised. At this point it is necessary to strengthen civil social networks that reduce state’s burden and make original civilization institutions operational.